Двигатель 402 и 417 какая разница между ними

Двигатель 402 и 417 какая разница между ними

Cassini

Introduction

For more than a decade, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft shared the wonders of Saturn and its family of icy moons—taking us to astounding worlds where methane rivers run to a methane sea and where jets of ice and gas are blasting material into space from a liquid water ocean that might harbor the ingredients for life.

The Latest

Cassini revealed in great detail the true wonders of Saturn, a giant world ruled by raging storms and delicate harmonies of gravity.

Cassini carried a passenger to the Saturn system, the European Huygens probe—the first human-made object to land on a world in the distant outer solar system.

After 20 years in space — 13 of those years exploring Saturn — Cassini exhausted its fuel supply. And so, to protect moons of Saturn that could have conditions suitable for life, Cassini was sent on a daring final mission that would seal its fate. After a series of nearly two dozen nail-biting dives between the planet and its icy rings, Cassini plunged into Saturn’s atmosphere on Sept. 15, 2017, returning science data to the very end.

10 Ways Cassini Mattered

Cassini-Huygens was a mission of firsts. First to orbit Saturn. First landing in the outer solar system. First to sample an extraterrestrial ocean.

Cassini expanded our understanding of the kinds of worlds where life might exist.

Cassini-Huygens revealed Titan to be one of the most Earth-like worlds we’ve encountered and shed light on the history of our home planet.

Cassini was, in a sense, a time machine. It revealed the processes that likely shaped the development of our solar system.

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Cassini’s long mission enabled us to observe weather and seasonal changes on another planet.

Cassini revealed Saturn’s moons to be unique worlds with their own stories to tell.

Cassini showed us the complexity of Saturn’s rings and the dramatic processes operating within them.

What Cassini found at Saturn prompted scientists to rethink their understanding of the solar system.

Cassini represented a staggering achievement of human and technical complexity, finding innovative ways to use the spacecraft.

Cassini revealed the beauty of Saturn, its rings and moons, inspiring our sense of wonder.

Notable Explorers

«Be curious about everything — take every opportunity that presents itself to learn new things.»

«The Ranger missions looked a lot more exciting to me than what I was doing at the time, and so I sent my resume off to JPL. I’ve been here ever since.»

«His spirit will continue to inspire us as we continue our quest to understand the Universe.»

«Science and math are part natural gifts and part practice. You don’t have to be a genius to be successful.»

«Ask lots of questions. Be persistent. And never stop exploring your options.»

«STEM is, by far, the coolest field to get into. We fly spacecraft around other planets; how much better can it get?»

«Stay close to subjects that fascinate you personally, but also ask why is the subject important.»

«To be able now to work on projects that are flying to the planets has been really a dream.»

«When I was a little girl Sputnik was launched, and I was instantly drawn into the whole miracle of spaceflight and exploring the cosmos.»

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«The great thing about being at NASA is that there are jobs for all types—whether it’s engineering, science, finance, communication, law.»

«Sometimes you have to tackle a problem from many different ways to understand it and you should never be afraid to ask for help.»

«Passion and tenacity, coupled with patience and humor. All will serve you well regardless of what you do.»

Quick Facts

2.5 million commands executed

4.9 billion miles traveled since launch (7.9 billion kilometers)

635 GB science data collected

4,000 science papers published

6 named moons discovered

294 orbits completed

162 targeted flybys of Saturn’s moons

453,048 images taken

27 nations participated

360 engine burns completed

What’s Next?

Before the mission ended, Cassini was an already powerful influence on future exploration. In revealing that Enceladus has essentially all the ingredients needed for life, the mission energized a pivot to the exploration of «ocean worlds» that has been sweeping planetary science over the past couple of decades.

Lessons learned during Cassini’s mission are being applied in planning NASA’s Europa Clipper mission, planned for launch in the 2020s. Europa Clipper will make dozens of flybys of Jupiter’s ocean moon to investigate its possible habitability, using an orbital tour design derived from the way Cassini explored Saturn.

Farther out in the solar system, scientists have long had their eyes set on exploring Uranus and Neptune. So far, each of these worlds has been visited by only one brief spacecraft flyby (Voyager 2, in 1986 and 1989, respectively). Collectively, Uranus and Neptune are referred to as ice giant planets. A variety of potential mission concepts are discussed in a recently completed study, delivered to NASA in preparation for the next Decadal Survey—including orbiters, flybys, and probes that would dive into Uranus’ atmosphere to study its composition. Future missions to the ice giants might explore those worlds using an approach similar to Cassini’s mission.

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Raw Images

Explore the full archive of raw images collected by the Cassini mission from 2004 to 2017.

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